Country name: Republic of Cyprus (the Turkish Cypriot area refers to itself as the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus").
Government type: republic.
Note: a disaggregation of the two ethnic communities inhabiting the island began following the outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this separation was further solidified after the Turkish intervention in July 1974 after a Greek junta-based coup attempt gave the Turkish Cypriots de facto control in the north; Greek Cypriots control the only internationally recognized government; on 15 November 1983 Turkish Cypriot "President" Rauf DENKTASH declared independence and the formation of a "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC), recognized only by Turkey; both sides publicly support a settlement based on a federation (Greek Cypriot position) or confederation (Turkish Cypriot position).
Independence: 16 August 1960 (from UK); note - Turkish Cypriot area proclaimed self-rule on 13 February 1975.
Administrative divisions: 6 districts; Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos; note - Turkish Cypriot area's administrative divisions include Kyrenia, all but a small part of Famagusta, and small parts of Lefkosia (Nicosia) and Larnaca.
Cyprus is the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily and Sardinia).
Terrain: central plain with mountains to north and south; scattered but significant plains along southern coast.
Total area: 9,250 km² (of which 3,355 km² are in the Turkish Cypriot area).
Coastline: 648 km.
Highest point: Olympus 1,951 m.
Climate: temperate; Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool winters.
Environment - current issues: water resource problems (no natural reservoir catchments, seasonal disparity in rainfall, sea water intrusion to island's largest aquifer, increased salination in the north); water pollution from sewage and industrial wastes; coastal degradation; loss of wildlife habitats from urbanization .
Ports and harbors: Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Paphos, Vasilikos.
Até 1960, Chipre era uma colônia britânica, quando conquistou sua independência. Tensões entre os cipriotas gregos e os cipriotas turcos resultaram em conflitos, em 1963. No ano seguinte, uma força de paz da ONU instalou-se na Ilha, mas os conflitos continuaram.
Em 1983, a área ocupada pelos cipriotas turcos proclamaram a República Turca de Chipre do Norte, reconhecida apenas pela Turquia. Em 2004, toda a Ilha passou a fazer parte da União Europeia e negociações entre as comunidades gregas e turcas do Chipre continuam em andamento.
População: 1,2 milhões de habitantes (2016).
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